Some basic definitions

By Frederick Weiner

Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. “Mini-strokes” or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that people must go to the hospital. The worst injuries can lead to permanent brain damage or death. Half of all TBIs are from motor vehicle accidents. Military personnel in combat zones are also at risk.

Symptoms of a TBI may not appear until days or weeks following the injury. A concussion is the mildest type. It can cause a headache or neck pain, nausea, ringing in the ears, dizziness, and tiredness.

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Article Name
Aphasia and Brain Injury Definitions
Simple clear definitions of brain injury resulting in communication, memory and cognition problems.




    June 10, 2014
    • Frederick Weiner said:

      The cost depends on the number of consumers who would be using the software. For a single individual it is $24.95/month. If you were interested in having up to 10 people using our 85 different apps the cost would be about $600.00 per year. I will be sending you a complimentary trial so you can see how it works. Any one else wanting a complimentary trial either email me at or go to

      June 10, 2014


      June 11, 2014
  2. Lara said:

    I am wondering if anyone whose spouse has aphasia might be interested in sharing their challenges and successes in living with aphasia from the spouses’ point of view…?

    For me, one issue that comes up often is miscommunication regarding dates and appointment times. We keep our daily/weekly schedule on a white board, but at times the wrong information is relayed and place incorrectly on the schedule. My husband wants to be independent, but I find I need to follow up for accuracy. I try to do this as diplomatically as possible.

    Any thoughts to share out there?

    June 10, 2014
    • Jim said:

      Our challenges were routine at first, but with the help of a cadre of friends and their persistence in redveloping interests and communication skills, my wife barely shows any of the classic signs of Aphasia, other than miss-called words, IE. Red when Blue was observed, and when watching her favorite sport, she still has the batter kicking the ball, she also loves football I might add. She no longer has driving privileges in our state and she was hurt by this, as she was a very cautious driver even soon after her stroke and returning home from convalescence. Maybe being married nearly 52 years makes a significant difference, not sure. But I think she is doing fine and she is happy and content with nearly all aspects of her and our lives. I wish I had been able to detect the onset conditions that led to her stroke, but like many people I had very little experience in this area of medicine. No one in my family ever experienced the acuatity of the condition that my wife did. I hope that helps a bit

      June 12, 2014
    • Ellie said:

      Perhaps a neutral reminder would help – by getting the dr’s office involved. Ask them to send a reminder email (immediately?) or give an appointment card which is then clipped to the schedule board (we have a magnetic bull-dog style clip on ours).

      For the sake of your information, I am the TBI patient, and have no real (or realistic!) concept of dates/times. However, by having the dr office write it down, it put it in a neutral zone for me instead of questioning and second-guessing my husband about everything.

      YES, we trust you — YES!!!! Absolutely YES!! But every fiber of our being is telling us something very different (such as it is currently December or that it’s 2002 or that the PT appointment is tomorrow and not today or whatever) and so it’s very difficult for us to come to grips with in so many ways. The concept of time is not something that you can just learn by memorizing it – you have to learn it by experiencing it. We aren’t TRYING to be difficult. :) We just are… without having to try. hahaha Thank you for your patience with us. Thank you for standing by us. Thank you for taking care of us and for loving us. We would be completely lost without you!!!

      June 23, 2014
      • Fred said:

        Thank you, Ellie, for communicating your thoughts about difficulties related to time. I have served my friend John as a informal secretary over the past four years during which John has been dealing with the effects (Brocca’s aphasia) of a severe ischemic stroke in the left hemisphere. As you are aware, particular symptoms can depend on relatively small differences in the area of the brain that was damaged. John has a very good sense of time, but he has enormous difficulty to speak about clock time (it is now eight nineteen). He has a good ability to plan his schedule and keep to it. The difficulties for him have been communicating with others about time/appointments/meetings, and this is where I have been able to help. Another common difficulty is mis-speaking ordinary terms–amazing how the simple “Yes” or “No” can be so ambiguous and lead to confusion.
        Anyway, I really liked the last paragraph of your entry and you sound like a wonderful person so I thought that I would convey a bit of my experience working with my friend.

        July 8, 2014
    • said:

      I think that the keys to utilize treatment, tools and practice techniques that help the PWA to become a Person Recovering from Aphasia (PRA) rather than living with aphasia.

      October 6, 2014
  3. Tim Keffer said:

    I’m 52 and have had a stroke two years ago. Other than a slight tingle in my foot I’m pretty much back to normal. After it happen things that that drove me crazy.
    - Ringing in my ear !!!!
    - Swallowing .
    - My hand shaking and it’s accuracy.
    - Blood thinners
    Two years out and I’m back to racing mountain bikes.
    I know I had a zillion of questions just after. I found a local going back to work support group that was wonderful. Strongly suggest.

    June 23, 2014
  4. Anita Cyriet said:

    My husband had a stroke in November and was left with severe expressive aphasia. He has found the programs on Parrot to be very helpful in retraining the brain. I asked for a program to be designed targeting areas in word retrieval, organizing, practice identifying letters and numbers etc. He continues to practice these tools. We have found that having something at home to practice re-enforces his speech therapy sessions.

    June 24, 2014
  5. Marci said:

    Does anyone know what can be done for my serious problems first, with very little attention span, and second, difficulty organizing information, self, and so on.

    July 15, 2014
  6. said:

    Wow what an interesting post got to read today its really very amazing i was hunting for this post from a long time strokes happen to me at certain interval of time but then it becomes fine.

    July 21, 2014
  7. My husband had a massive left hemisphere stroke april 29, 2014. His stroke was the result of an undiagnosed patent foramen ovale (hole in the heart) He is 100% capable physically but is severely aphasic. Until recently he has been very mellow but now his frustration in my difficulty understanding him is making him angry and depressed. He received extensive PT, OT and St and is currently continuing with ST and OT at home. I am a nurse but feel very uneducated in trying to help him with this.

    October 21, 2014
  8. said:

    Thank you for providing good information about “stroke”

    October 24, 2014
  9. Tony Cayot said:

    Aphasia – Yes!

    October 29, 2014
  10. Melanie said:

    I have a son 31 years old and had a TBI 3 years ago he has recovered very well although he has speech recall trouble his friends have gone on with there lives and I feel he needs to meet people that are simalur to him any suggestions on groups?

    February 17, 2015
    • Gloria said:

      My husband is 23 years old. He had suffered from severe traumatic car accident. He has aphasia and having speech therapy once a week. Also, his brain injury affected his right vision, arms, hands, and legs. I’m thankful to find this loop where maybe I can find some advices and connect with other people in the same situation.

      @ Melanie:
      My husband Robert and I will be glad to meet your son.
      @ Lara:
      We have the same problem on dates and time. Everyday I always let him know what’s going on and try to put our appointments on calendars and show him. I admit, sometimes I forgot to remind him again of what’s next til it’s really near on time and he doesn’t like it. He always wants to be explained what’s happening and what will go next in line. So I might try to put things on paper and have him his own daily journal maybe.
      @ Ellie:
      I will try to apply part of your advice. I will try to show him doctor’s appointment emailed and on paper. Thanks!

      April 11, 2015
  11. said:

    What can I do primarily if anyone got stroke before taking hospital?

    December 17, 2015
  12. Kathleen said:

    I am 63 years old . In the last 2 years I have had 6 brain bleeds ( hemorrhagic strokes ). One required brain surgery because it caused double vision and one that caused my right arm to be affected after lifting a heavy suitcase several times.The other bleeds were uneventful. Doctors have ran several tests to find a cause and can’t come up with anything. I had blood work, spinal taps, CT scans, MRI’s, TEE test and a brain angiogram done. I did have a head injury that was significant in 2011 but doctors don’t think this is a cause. My family history has longevity ( 80′s, 90′s even 100 ) with no brain health issues. I am at a loss. Does anyone have any suggestions ? I have been to Mayo Clinic.

    January 10, 2016
  13. Meditation and Neuroplasticity

    If you remember, neuroplasticity refers to changes in neural transmission and brain structure as you gain new skills. Obviously, the goal of our software is to establish new neural pathways. Another important method is through meditation. Evidence shows that daily meditation not only changes neural structure but also helps with tasks like you have seen in our software.

    Here are a couple of links that describe the research:

    Evidence builds that meditation strengthens the brain

    Meditation and Neuroplasticity: Five key articles

    If you think you would like to try meditation, you can google the terms “guided meditation”.

    Here is one that I sometimes use:
    We have no connection with this site and like most you tube posts you will have to wait for a ad to display the ‘Skip ad’ button.

    We strongly encourage you to add meditation to your daily routine. Meditation will make you more receptive to what we strive to accomplish in our software.

    February 25, 2016

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